This report presents the results of the first ever open space valuation of Western Washington’s Central Puget Sound region, including King, Kitsap, Pierce, and Snohomish counties. Ten open space services, comparable with ecosystem services, are valued for each of 15 land cover types. These services represent a substantial and critical component of the regional economy, contributing $11.4 to $25.2 billion per year.
This report evaluates the effect that calculating environmental benefits could have in two flood and stormwater mitigation case studies in Wisconsin: the first, a partially-funded property acquisition project in Jefferson County; the second, a stormwater mitigation project in the City of Portage. Integrating environmental benefits into hazard planning will enable local and state floodplain and emergency management professionals and stakeholder groups to use FEMA policy updates on benefit-cost analyses to fund innovative flood-risk reduction projects.
This report explores the importance of outdoor recreation in Whatcom County. The County's recreation-related businesses form an important hub of regional economic activity and contribute to the local tax base. This report includes an economic contribution analysis of outdoor recreation and further illustrates the value of Whatcom County's recreational lands through an ecosystem services valuation.
This report presents an independent environmental and social benchmarking analysis of Nautilus Minerals’ proposed deep seabed mining project. The primary goal of the analysis was to measure the environmental and social impacts of the Solwara 1 project in comparison with three terrestrial mines.
This report evaluates the costs and benefits of floodplain protection in Waterbury, Vermont and Willsboro, New York in the Lake Champlain Basin, U.S.A. The primary elements of the project are ecosystem services valuation, buildout/conservation analysis, hydrologic calculations of current existing peak flows and predicted future peak flows, hydraulic modeling of floodplains, building damage simulations due to flooding, and cost-benefit accounting to determine the best form of flood risk reduction for each community. The most economically sound flood risk mitigation plans were found in towns in which damage reductions were high, the loss of tax revenue was low, the cost of mitigation activity was low, and the ecosystem service value was high.
The natural capital in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, provides a robust flow of essential economic goods and services benefits, including food, water, clean air, natural beauty, climatic stability, storm and flood protection, and recreation. Agricultural lands make up over 65% of the ecosystems in Lancaster County, which is the first county in the nation to reach 100,000 acres of preserved farmland. This analysis identified the natural capital from farmland preservation at $676 million in annual economic benefits. If treated like an asset, Lancaster County ecosystems value at $17.5 billion.
This report highlights the Long Island Sound Basin’s natural capital and provides an update to the 1992 Altobello valuation study. Fourteen ecosystem services across nine land cover types were valued, and total ecosystem services flows within the Basin were found to reach at least $17 billion to $37 billion every year. This report also includes recommendations to fill key gaps in primary valuation studies for Long Island Sound and to conduct assessments on the return on investment.
From hikes in the desert to a ski run down a mountain side, Washington State residents have numerous choices for outdoor recreation. These rich options also provide many families and businesses with jobs and revenue. This study quantified the contribution of outdoor recreation to Washington State's economy, finding that the outdoor recreation industry contributes $21.6 billion annually. This report was well-received and leveraged across the state, influencing the appointment of Washington State's first director of outdoor initiatives.
This ecosystem services valuation was the first comprehensive economic analysis of the entire Colorado River Basin, a 249,000 square mile region spanning across mountains, plateaus, and low-lying valleys of the American Southwest. Colorado River Basin ecosystems provide a suite of ecosystem services that includes water supply, flood risk reduction, and recreation. The analysis highlighted the importance of engaging water utilities stakeholders, as the Basin's ecosystems provide between $56.5 billion and $466.5 billion in economic benefits every year.
This report presents a return on investment analysis of the North Wind’s Weir Restoration project. The environmental benefits provided by the restored transition zone of the lower Duwamish River are considered over time. The restoration, although a small area, will provide long-term benefits, particularly for salmon habitat. The results justified investment in the North Wind's Weir restoration project, and the report outcomes have been featured in numerouspresentations to federal partners, namely HUD and FEMA, in support of natural capital investment.
This analysis quantified the economic, environmental, and social impacts of the William A. Grant Water & Environmental Center (WEC) at Walla Walla Community College. Since opening in 2007, the WEC has had an $88 million economic and environmental impact, and shows a $3 return for every $1 invested. This study helped secure continued government funding for the Center.
This report examines the growing risks and rising costs of climate change across the United States. Hurricanes, floods, and extreme weather events have high human and financial tolls. This report calls for increased efficiency and effectiveness in natural hazard management through proactive investments and a focus on green infrastructure for risk reduction. The report also identifies seven areas of federal and state law in need of improvement.
Pacific County’s nearshore ecosystems are valued at approximately $313 million to $3.1 billion dollars per year. This report offers recommendations for the preservation of ecosystems that contribute tangibly to the local economy. Furthermore, the report is aimed to support public and county decision-makers in understanding the economic context of project planning, policy choices, and other requirements particular to shoreline ecosystems and critical areas throughout the county.
This economic analysis estimates the value of the ecosystem services provided by natural assets in Pacific County’s nearshore environment. Pacific County’s nearshore ecosystems value at approximately $985 million to $4.4 billion dollars per year. Recommendations are offered for the preservation of ecosystems that contribute tangibly to the local economy. This report aims to support public and county decision-makers in understanding the economic context of project planning, policy choices and other requirements particular to shoreline ecosystems and critical areas throughout the county.
This first-ever regional economic valuation demonstrates how natural capital and its benefits directly support Santa Clara County’s economic health and overall well-being. Nature in Santa Clara County, home to Silicon Valley, provides benefits valued at $1.6 to $3.9 billion annually. These benefits include clean air, water supply and quality, reduced fire and flood risk, wildlife habitat, pollination, healthy food and recreation. The asset value of Santa Clara County’s natural capital is estimated between $162 and $386 billion.
This report presents a framework for scientists, academic institutions, and land stewards to integrate existing biophysical models within a single modeling platform to enable better decisions concerning land use planning, salmon restoration, storm water projects, forestry practices, and flood risk reduction. The Multi-scale Integrated Models of Ecosystem Services (MIMES) demonstrates how current demographic and ecological trends place immense pressure on the natural environment, with significant economic implications. MIMES is the first platform to integrate existing local, national, and global models to systemically answer questions related to sea-level rise, flood risk, and restoration needs.
This report identifies several funding mechanisms that generate revenue of approximately $3 million. These resources are needed, in addition to existing sources of funding, to fully implement watershed maintenance and natural asset improvement projects to meet restoration goals of the Nisqually Watershed Recovery Program by 2055.
This report presents a technical valuation of the damages from dumping accumulated dam sediments in the Anchicaya River on Colombia's Pacific Coast. The unplanned discharge of more than 500,000 cubic meters of sludge in 2001 resulted in shocks to vulnerable ecosystems, severe damage to fish and shellfish, and harm to water supply, crops, and riverine and coastal mangroves. Earth Economics partnered with Fundacion Neotropica to conduct an economic valuation of the damages, emphasizing ecosystem connectivity and both market and non-market environmental impacts.
This report provides effective alternatives to the current financial model and policy framework that drive investment decisions in real estate. These alternatives will help shift limited investment capital towards a restorative built environment by integrating social and environment benefits into investment models, appraiser methodologies, and supporting policies.
The Mississippi River Delta is a vast national economic asset that is being squandered at tremendous cost. Over the last 80 years, the Delta has lost over 1.2 million acres of land, and the coastline has retreated by as much as 30 miles. Yet, this area is well worth the investment for restoration. This report presents the most comprehensive measure of the economic value of the Mississippi River Delta’s natural systems to date, demonstrating that the area’s ecosystems provide at least $12 to $47 billion in benefits to people each year. If this natural capital is treated as an economic asset, the Delta’s minimum asset value is $330 billion to $1.3 trillion. This study also examines the dynamic physical changes affecting the Delta region, outlines the economic implications of those changes, and compares three investment/restoration scenarios for the region.